عن المنهج العلمي


  • Title: عن المنهج العلمي
  • Author: René Descartes رينيه ديكارت محمود محمد الخضيري
  • ISBN: 9770168491
  • Page: 279
  • Format: Paperback
  • None

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      Published :2019-02-19T13:02:38+00:00

    1 thought on “عن المنهج العلمي”

    1. 3.0 to 3.5 stars (though as mentioned below, the first four sections get 4 to 5 stars). One of the most influential works in history of modern science/philosophy, the full name of the work is "Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences." It is a work that deals with the ascertaining of knowledge from "first principals" and creates a method from which all research into scientific principals could be based. He begins by saying that because so ma [...]

    2. “e perusal of all excellent books is, as it were, to interview with the noblest men of past ages, who have written them.” ― René Descartes, Discourse on MethodThere are certain books that are hugely influential and fantastic reads. This one was hugely influential. In many ways modern science (and philosophy) owes a great deal to some of the frameworks, methods, and rationalities posited by Descartes in this book. Hell, even the idea of starting off skeptical and building from there owes a [...]

    3. Man, epicenter of nature and of the world, is a spirit endowed with a consciousness to "mater", unlike animals By his faculty to think, to experiment, to order his thought, everyone has to doubt to seek his own "truth", whether scientific, spiritual or ideological. Descartes , a master of modern mathematics, of Cartesian thought, of empirical doubt, of methodical reasoning, revolutionized the scientific and philosophical thought of his time and of centuries to come. He is already distinguished f [...]

    4. I concede the point: my entire philosophical raison d'être orbits around the deconstruction of the false dualism unleashed upon the world by René. Though, albeit, alas, perhaps it is unfair to blame him entirely, seeing as the Greeks started it, and considering that R. was most likely just articulating an ethos since embodied by “Western” (European) civilization.Dualism: the idea of separation, articulation, and demarcation, specifically into a binary framework, is the essential construct [...]

    5. Η πραγματεία αυτή, δημοσιευμένη στα 1637, στην καρδιά του Τριακονταετούς Πολέμου, από έναν άνθρωπο ασθενικό και φοβισμένο, αλλά και πεπεισμένο για την αλήθεια των συλλογισμών του (έχει τα πειράματά του πάνω από όλα και μια προπαρασκεύη από προηγούμενες μελέτες του επάνω στη [...]

    6. The Discourse on the Method is a fascinating book, both as a work of philosophy and as a historical document. Descartes lived and worked in a period that Thomas Kuhn would call a "paradigm shift": one way of thinking, one worldview, was slowly being replaced by another. Descartes's work, while part of the new paradigm, still has one leg in the old mode of thought.The old, waning worldview was scholastic Aristotelianism. The Aristotelian paradigm had a conception of the mind, of knowledge, and of [...]

    7. Descartes'ı hepimiz hayatımızın bir döneminde duymuşuzdur. Rasyonalizmin ve kartezyenciliğin kurucusu, modern batı felsefesinin babası olarak kabul edilen Descartes, başyapıtı olarak kabul edilen Yöntem Üzerine Konuşma'yı 1637 yılında yayımlamış. Gallilei'in başına gelenleri duyan Descartes, muhtemelen eserini bir miktar elden geçirip sansürlemiş. O ünlü "düşünüyorum öyleyse varım" (cogito ergo sum) önermesinin de bulunduğu bu kitapta kendi hayatından da özy [...]

    8. "Dahası bana göre şu önerme, yani Düşünüyorum, öyleyse varım ya da mevcudum önermesinin doğruluğu o kadar kesin ve o kadar açıktı ki" (s.70)Düşünüyorum öyleyse varım sözüyle meşhur olan filozof Descartes'in başyapıtı olarak kabul edilen Yöntem Üzerine Konuşma yazarın iki temel görüşü üzerine kurulu. Bunlardan ilki, kişinin her şeyden şüphe edebileceği lakin düşünen benliğinden şüphe edemeyeceği:"Sonra dikkatle kim olduğuma baktım ve gördüm ki, [...]

    9. مراجعة كتاب “ حديث الطريقة “ للفيلسوف الفرنسي رينيه ديكارتهذا الكتاب هو أول كتاب أقرأه لديكارت ، بعد أن قرأت عنه كثيراً هنا و هناك ، و لكني كنت قد آليت على نفسي ألا أقرأ للفلاسفة إلا من كتبهم و أتجنب أي سرد أو تلخيص أو شرح لفكرهم و نتاجهم و ذلك بعد سماع نصيحة شوبنهاور، و إني لأ [...]

    10. ما رأيي بالكتاب؟ هل أنت مهتم؟ اقرأ معي إذًا:يا إخوتي، هأنذا، بعد عمري كله، وبعد ما عايشته. وخبرته، وعلمت من التجارب، والشواهد، والأدلة، ما يؤكد كلامي ورأيي، وأؤكد لكم، بل وأكاد أتيقن، وأجزم، وأقطع، أن رأيي، الذي أقول به، وأعتقده، لهو صحيح، وكل هذا، لا يرجع، فقط، لكوني عايشته [...]

    11. حالا ما که هیچی نیستیم در عرصه فلسفه ولی به نظرم کتابش چیز خاصی نداشت و اساسا مسیر واحدی هم نداشت؛ از تشریح عملکرد قلب تا اثبات خدا از طریق عقلکتاب کوچکی است اما واقعا خواندنش سخت است؛ چون هیچ انسجامی و اساسا محتوای ویژه ای ندارد

    12. Summary of my notes on the Discourse, by part:I. The premise is introduced that reason is naturally equal in all, and truth is to be found by conducting it correctly. Descartes attempts to show how he himself has attempted this, not to dictate how everyone should.II. The method. Descartes wished to rebuild the very foundations upon which his opinions and views were formed. He decided to do this by systematic doubt. The key point is to never accept as true anything that is not known to be evident [...]

    13. دکارت، در بیست و دو سه سالگی، بیشتر مابعد الطبیعه ی خودش رو پی ریزی کرد که البته، خیلی هم مابعد الطبیعه نبود. بلکه فقط مقدمه ی مختصری بود تا از شک رها بشه و بتونه به علوم دیگه بپردازه. چرا که به قول خودش، مابعدالطبیعه مثل تنه ی درخته و علوم دیگه، مثل شاخه. تا این تنه در جای درستی ر [...]

    14. La literatura como alimento para el espíritu. Así entiendo este libro del padre de la filosofía moderna. Una lectura primordial. Su brevedad ayuda además a vencer ciertas reticencias que se puedan oponer a su lectura.

    15. Rene’ Descartes’ “Discourse on the Method” is one of the most difficult books for me to review, in that it is half inspiring to me, and half disappointing; what starts out as a brilliant doubting methodology, eliminating whatever can be doubted until there is nothing left than can be by any conjecture or hypothesis be reasonably doubted- arrive at a basic, fundamental truth, providing a firm rational foundation from other truths can be derived. Unfortunately, once Descartes discovers thi [...]

    16. لابد لنا من الوقوف هنا لننظر متأملين الى احدى مكتسبات الانسانيه هنا مرحلة انعطاف هامه في تاريخ الهوموسابيانز والعلوم الانسانيه المكتسبه تماما حالها كحال منازعة كوبرينيكوس لافكار بطليموس القائله بمركزية الارض والتي روّج لها جاليلو لاحقا، وماديّة نيوتن، وتطوّر داروين، ونس [...]

    17. An Interview with DescartesN: Cartesius, ever since I read your treatise "Meditations on First Philosophy: In which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated", I've wished to meet you in person and discuss the subjects in detail.C: Is that why you imagined this conversation with me?N: Unfortunately, I have no power of imagination, with which you are abundantly gifted.C: Nemo, you're gifted with the faculty of reason, which all men have, and by which you can distinguis [...]

    18. ''La diversidad de nuestras opiniones no procede de que unos sean más racionales que otros, sino tan solo de que dirigimos nuestros pensamientos por caminos distintos y no consideramos las mismas cosas. No basta, ciertamente, tener un buen entendimiento: lo principal es aplicarlo bien''.Se suele hablar de la revolución de 1600 en referencia al triunfo del helicocentrismo copernicano y al nacimiento de la ciencia moderna, pero estas cosas funcionan a su ritmo, y no hay que olvidar que en aquell [...]

    19. Rene Descartes is not only a pure optimist and a wide thinker but he too is very eloquent, charismatic, simple and very brilliant in how he fuses his ideas and arguments to that of different sciences such as anatomy and to an extent, psychology itself.While reading this it is as if you are not reading a highly charged philosophy book but instead it makes you think that it is in fact a travel novel, which is amazing. Rene Descartes articulately draws his own opinions on the environs, perceptions, [...]

    20. 1.روش دکارت برای درست راه بردن عقل این است که همه آن چه آموخته رها کند و از نو شروع کند به ساخت نظام فکری خود به این صورت که از بدیهی ترین حقایق آغاز کند و حقایق دیگر را با استدلال منطقی از آن مقدمات نتیجه بگیرد. اولین اصل بدیهی هم که در می یابد و می خواهد باقی حقایق را از آن به دست [...]

    21. Hard for me to take seriously someone who talks about perfection like it's a trait--when really it's more of a relationship between traits, or an aesthetic response to them. A master of taking 500 words to say something obvious (like Proust); and the relentless latinate style grew tiresome quickly. Also full of ridiculous insincerities: on the one hand he's leaving notes to posterity, then saying nobody cares about a schmucky little goober like himself. And with the last sentence he seems to be [...]

    22. HOW AWESOME I AM AND HOW I GOT TO BE THIS WAYthe first part's great, where he's talking about re-educating himself from the ground up and throwing away all the nonsensical crap that got poured into him by other people as he was growing up. but then once he gets started again from first principles or whatever, he immediately wanders off into some pretty shaky god stuff and then it just turns into a description of how the innards of the body work which hey, might be right, but ain't so interesting [...]

    23. p= 59 que d'employer toute ma vie à cultiver ma raison, et m'avancer, autant que je pouvais, en la connaissance de la vérité, suivant la méthode que je m'étais prescrite. ص=۵۹ برای پرورش ذهنم از منطق خودم استفاده کنم٬ و خودم پیش برم٬ همون قدر که می تونم٬ با شناخت حقیقت٬ بر اساس شیوه ای که خودم تجویز کردم.p=144 je suis ce que je suis ص= ۱۴۴ من چیزی هستم که هستم

    24. این کتاب درون کتاب سیر حکمت در اروپای فروغی پس از فصل دکارت به عنوان پایان جلد اول آورده شده است.بدون شک برای فهم فلسفه باید دکارت را خواند و برای فهم دکارت هم باید گفتار در روش را خواند

    25. Kafamda uzun zamandır bir soru: Tefekkür/meditasyon nasıl gerçekleştirilir?Bugünün dünyası size aşağı yukarı şöyle söyler: Bilginin sınırı yoktur. Bilinmesi mümkün o kadar çok bilgi vardır ki bunların tümünü öğrenmeye insan ömrünün ve aklının kafi gelmesine imkan yoktur. Öyle ki gelmiş geçmiş bütün insanlar düşünmüş, çalışıp çabalamış, eserler meydana getirmiş ve ancak bugün bildiklerimizi ortaya koyabilmiştir. Bildiklerimiz ise bilmedikleri [...]

    26. تجاوزت آخر قسمين بشيء من السرعة لعدم اهتمامي بدرجة كبيرة بهما. تقييم الكتاب ككتاب خارج عن دائرة شهرته جيدة للغاية، خصوصًا أول قسمين اثناء تحدث ديكارت عن نفسه وتعامله مع فترة الشك، والقواعد التي وضعها لتجاوز مرحلة الشك،. وربما يكون حديثه شجعني بدرجة كبيرة لاستكمال القراءة بع [...]

    27. I have some amount of ambivalence toward skeptical philosophy in general. It's a tradition that engendered enlightenment errors and, later, influenced atheistic materialism. Descartes wasn't an atheist or a materialist as such, but his system of skeptical doubt is still incredibly silly in my opinion. First of all, a system of doubt is a contradiction in terms; a system must be based on positive and actual constituents; doubt is a negative, not a positive, so it cannot be a foundation for any ge [...]

    28. C'est agréable de se replonger dans ce classique des étudiants de terminale. Les trois premiers chapitres sont exemplaires. Descartes sert ici plus une autobiographie et une justification de son parcours intellectuel, qui consiste principalement en une remise à plat de ses connaissances suite à l'insatisfaction qu'il a ressentie des fruits qu'il a tiré de ses études, principalement Aristote. Il est clair que pour l'étude de la nature, on peut facilement trouver à reprendre les anciens. L [...]

    29. Самая главная ошибка, которую совершают те, кто готовит рис — снимают крышку раньше времени. Или мешают его во время варки. Не нужно этого делать. Бросил рис в кипящую воду, поставил медленный огонь, накрыл кастрюлю крышкой и оставил на 5-8 минут. Всё. Не открываешь его до прош [...]

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